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4 Common Causes of Back Pain: Doctor’s Analysis & Solutions

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Searching for the common causes of back pain but feeling lost in a sea of information? Here’s what you need to know:

As an experienced Doctor, I’ve witnessed the 4 common causes of back pain largely stem from muscle and ligament strains, spinal column issues, inflammatory diseases, and other health conditions – and that’s just the start!

My patients call me the “wonder Doc” – I’ve devoted my career to understanding this complex condition (sifting through countless research articles, consulting with fellow experts, and gleaning insights from real patient experiences) and have experienced its impact.

Keep reading for more on the 4 common causes of back pain and explore the tried-and-true remedies that have brought relief to my patients – yes, you can do something about the pain!

Key Takeaways

  • Muscle and ligament strains, spinal column issues, inflammatory diseases, and other health conditions often trigger back pain.
  • Addressing back pain requires a personalized approach combining medical interventions, lifestyle changes, and stress management.
  • Simple tools like back braces can provide significant relief and support but should be part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

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Ready to boost your knowledge? Scroll for the 4 common causes!

4 Common Causes of Back Pain

Back pain, a familiar nemesis for many worldwide, can be a complex puzzle with many potential culprits.

Don’t believe me? According to a recent study, “An estimated 200 billion dollars are spent annually on managing back pain. [1]” – and that’s only the start…

These people experience what’s known as the “4 common causes”:

1. Muscle and Ligament Strains

Unexpected movements or repeated heavy lifting can strain your back muscles and spinal ligaments. One might also wonder, “How long should you sleep in a recliner after shoulder surgery?” as this can be relevant to post-surgical care and comfort.

Those in less than stellar physical shape may experience this as a constant strain. Yes, this leads to painful muscle spasms (prevention is better than cure!).

2. Spinal Column Issues

Degenerative conditions, such as osteoarthritis, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease, contribute to back pain.

x-ray of Spinal Column with issues

A bone scan can be crucial to identify broken bones or abnormal spine curves.

3. Inflammatory Diseases

Inflammatory conditions like axial spondyloarthritis can cause prolonged discomfort in the back, impacting the spine and nearby nerve fibers.

4. Other Health Conditions

Chronic conditions, like kidney stones or endometriosis, can manifest as back pain. Additionally, cancers affecting the spine or adjacent structures can induce back pain.

As a specialist in managing back pain, I’m here to help navigate this intricate labyrinth – but first, I’ll discuss the anatomy of the back (where it all originates)…

Anatomy of the Back: The Spinal Column and Beyond

Delving into the anatomy of the back is like traversing an intricate architectural masterpiece. This complex structure comprises:

  • Bones
  • Muscles
  • Nerves
  • Soft tissues

Central to it all is the spinal column – our body’s foundational support system. This crucial structure is partitioned into distinct sections:

  1. Cervical Spine: The neck region
  2. Thoracic Spine: The mid-back area
  3. Lumbar Spine: The lower back segment
  4. Sacrum and Coccyx: The base of the spine

The spine’s intricate design encompasses the following:

  • Individual Vertebrae: The small bones forming the spine
  • Intervertebral Discs: The body’s natural shock absorbers
  • Facet Joints: Connecting the vertebrae

All these elements are encapsulated within a robust matrix of muscles, tendons, and ligaments – offering strength and flexibility to your back.

And then, we have the spinal nerves, branching out from the spinal cord. These are our body’s communication superhighway, transmitting vital signals between our brain and every other body part.

As a seasoned physician with decades of experience, understanding the back’s anatomy is the first step toward effective pain management. Remember, maintaining a healthy, strong back is pivotal for overall well-being.

Back Pain: Recognizing the Symptoms

Back pain symptoms can range from localized discomfort to pain radiating down the legs, often referred to as sciatica, due to the involvement of the sciatic nerve.

lady with back pain

As Andrew Nava, M.D., a back pain rehabilitation specialist, explains, “Chronic back pain is usually age-related, but can also result from a prior injury.” [2]

The symptoms can range from local discomfort to pain radiating down the legs, a condition often referred to as sciatica due to the involvement of the sciatic nerve.

Certain positions or activities, such as lifting, bending, or sitting for prolonged periods, may exacerbate the severity or frequency of this pain.

Nava recommends seeking “a second opinion from a back pain specialist if the cause of your chronic back pain” remains elusive after extensive diagnostics.

Recognizing and Understanding Different Types of Back Pain

Understanding the diverse types of back pain is the foundation for effective treatment. Broadly, there are two primary categories of back pain: acute and chronic.

  1. Acute Back Pain: This type of pain is sudden, typically from an injury or trauma, and lasts less than six weeks.
  2. Chronic Back Pain: Chronic pain, in contrast, persists for over three months and may arise from more complex health issues. This pain can also fluctuate in intensity and be intermittent.

We can further describe pain based on its location and nature:

  1. Axial Pain: Confined to one spot or region.
  2. Referred Pain: Dull and spread over a larger area.
  3. Radicular Pain: Sharp and radiating due to nerve irritation.

Each of these distinctions is critical in guiding treatment plans and managing expectations.

However, back pain symptoms can significantly vary based on the underlying cause, necessitating a professional diagnosis.

More severe symptoms include loss of control over bowel or bladder function, numbness or tingling in the extremities, and severe pain that doesn’t improve with rest or over-the-counter pain relievers.

If you experience persistent pain that disrupts your daily activities, it is imperative to seek medical attention to identify its source.

In severe cases, back pain may be accompanied by other symptoms like fever, night sweats, or unexplained weight loss, which could indicate more serious underlying conditions.

When To Seek Medical Attention (What Experts Say)

Persistent back pain, especially if it lasts for weeks, doesn’t improve with rest, or radiates down the legs, is a signal for medical intervention.

doctor checking the back of the senior

Dr. Robert Shmerling, a rheumatologist at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, highlights that, in most cases, a primary care physician or a chiropractor can competently handle these issues [4].

But if traditional approaches fall short or symptoms escalate, a specialist’s expertise may be needed.

Dr. Matthew Kowalski, a chiropractor at the Osher Clinical Center for Integrative Medicine, suggests chiropractors can be the first point of contact for back pain, considering that around 40% of people consult a chiropractor for their first episode of back pain [3].

If your back pain is accompanied by worrisome symptoms such as unexplained weight loss, numbness, or leg weakness, immediate consultation with a healthcare provider is vital.

Back pain is commonly associated with lower-extremity symptoms, which can be caused by neurological conditions unrelated to the spine. Neurologists excel at sorting this out,” says Dr. Kowalski [4].

Depending on the characteristics and intensity of your back pain, you may find yourself referred to various specialists – a neurologist, physiatrist, rheumatologist, physical therapist, pain management physician, or spinal surgeon.

Remember, pinpointing the cause of your back pain could necessitate multiple tests, and you might require a team of experts.

Now, discover how to manage your back pain with the best medical treatments & lifestyle changes out there…

Managing Back Pain: Medical Treatments and Lifestyle Changes

Tackling back pain demands a customized plan, often a mix of medical treatments, lifestyle shifts, and stress control, each crafted to suit the intensity and cause of the discomfort.

This approach typically involves a combination of medical interventions, lifestyle changes, and stress management.

Medical Interventions

Consider safe and simple medical measures – here are 3 instances:

  1. Physical Therapy: Regular appointments with a skilled physical therapist can greatly ease back pain.
  2. Medication: Different drugs may be recommended to manage discomfort, depending on the nature of the back pain.
  3. Surgery: In extreme situations where other interventions fail to bring relief, surgical action might be necessary.

Lifestyle Changes

Here are 3 lifestyle changes you can incorporate for the best results:

yoga stretching exercises for seniors
  1. Physical Activity: Regular physical exercise, particularly core strengthening exercises, can notably lessen back pain.
  2. Healthy Weight: Keeping a healthy weight can lessen the strain on your spine and ease back pain.
  3. Good Posture: Maintaining good posture, whether sitting or standing, can prevent muscle tension and decrease back pain.

Stress Management

Elevated stress can lead to muscle tension, potentially worsening pain symptoms. Therefore, those enduring chronic pain must monitor and manage their stress levels.

Temporary Relief

Even modest changes, such as employing an ice pack to reduce inflammation and enhance blood flow, can provide temporary relief.

When to Seek Medical Advice

Should you suffer from continuous back pain that isn’t alleviated by over-the-counter analgesics or physical therapy, seeking, medical advice is vital.

Various medical treatments may be suggested based on the severity and type of your back pain, ranging from pain control methods to surgery.

Developing a Tailored Treatment Plan

You can develop a tailored treatment plan with healthcare professionals’ proper knowledge and guidance.

This plan may involve a combination of interventions: medications to manage pain or address underlying conditions, physical therapy to strengthen back muscles and improve flexibility, and lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthy weight and practicing good posture.

In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

6 Risk Factors Of Back Pain

During my extensive medical career, I’ve identified several risk factors that can escalate the likelihood of back pain. Grasping these factors is the first step toward effective prevention.

1. Aging:

The risk of back pain, mainly due to conditions like degenerative disc disease or bone spurs, increases as we age.

2. Physical Condition and Activities:

Lack of exercise can result in weak back and abdominal muscles, making you prone to back pain. Additionally, strenuous or repetitive activities can exacerbate the risk if not carried out properly.

3. Body Weight:

Excess body weight exerts additional stress on the back, escalating the risk of discomfort.

4. Underlying Health Issues:

Certain types of arthritis and other health conditions can contribute to back pain.

5. Psychological Factors:

Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can make individuals more susceptible to chronic back pain.

6. Unforeseen Movements:

Surprisingly, even an awkward movement can lead to a muscle spasm, triggering back pain.

Prevention is always better than cure. Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and practicing good posture can significantly reduce the risk of back pain.

If you still experience back pain, remember that numerous effective treatment options are available, from lifestyle changes to surgical interventions such as bone grafts.

Prevention of Back Pain

To prevent back pain, it’s vital to maintain a healthy weight, engage in regular physical activity, and practice correct posture during everyday activities.

lady showing how to exercise for proper posture

Nancy E. Epstein, MD, chief of neurosurgical spine and education at Winthrop-University Hospital in Mineola, New York, emphasizes the importance of exercise in preventing back pain [4].

She notes, “The failure to perform any exercise, particularly abdominal strengthening exercises, may lead to poor posture and increased low back pain. [3]”

Strengthening the abdominal muscles through an exercise program can also help reduce the likelihood of back pain, as these muscles are crucial for supporting the upper body.

Check out this video on how to deal with low back pain – tips, techniques, and more!

The Role of Back Braces in Back Pain Management

An often underestimated tool in the battle against back pain, notably lower back discomfort, is back braces.

These instruments can be a fantastic resource for supporting the lumbar area, promoting correct posture, and easing the burden on back muscles.

Back braces prove exceptionally useful in recovery from back surgeries or injuries.

They help by limiting spinal movement, aiding in healing, and decreasing the risk of additional injury.

Back braces can provide the necessary support for those whose work involves heavy lifting or standing for extended periods, reducing the chances of back strain.

However, remember, back braces should not be the singular solution for back pain but a component of a well-rounded management strategy.

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Overdependence on a back brace could potentially weaken the back muscles over time.

Always seek professional medical advice when considering the use of back braces.

Always consult with a healthcare professional for advice on the appropriate use of back braces.

Besides, it’s important to note that while back braces can offer symptomatic relief, they should not substitute the medical treatment and lifestyle modifications necessary for comprehensive back pain management.


1. What are the most common causes of back pain?

Muscle and ligament strains, spinal column issues, inflammatory diseases, and other health conditions are the typical culprits.

2. How can I effectively manage my back pain?

A combination of medical interventions, lifestyle changes, and stress management, personalized to your needs, can bring relief.

3. Can back braces help with back pain?

Yes, they provide support and stability, especially during recovery from surgery or injury, but should be part of a broader treatment strategy.


Back pain is a complex and multifaceted condition addressing the common causes of back pain.

However, it can be effectively managed with an informed and proactive approach.

Understanding its causes and symptoms is the first step towards finding effective pain relief and improving your quality of life.

You have options from seeking appropriate medical treatments to making beneficial lifestyle changes. You’re not alone; with the right support, you can regain control over your health.

woman with back pain


1. Casiano VE, Dydyk AM, Varacallo M. Back Pain [Internet]. PubMed. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021. Available from:

2. Nava, M.D. AM. 7 Ways to Treat Chronic Back Pain Without Surgery [Internet]. 2019. Available from:

3. Where to turn for low back pain relief [Internet]. Harvard Health. 2017. Available from:

4. Stewart K. 7 Bad Habits That Cause Back Pain | Everyday Health [Internet]. 2016. Available from:

About Author

Lamia A Kader, MD
Lamia A Kader is a Medical Doctor and a Medical Research Professional with a Ph.D. in Clinical Research. ISMMS, USA. She had enhanced her medical knowledge of medical devices and equipment development and innovation by attending clinical meetings, local national courses, journal clubs, and conferences, in addition to e-learning, subscribing to major medical journals and keeping an eye on latest trends in medicine and keeping an eye on clinical trials industry and healthcare marketing current trends. She had participated in several medical device innovation projects by conducting clinical research studies, developing clinical trial protocols, writing patient safety narratives and β€œMedical Device Risk Assessment Reports” to transform new medical technologies into real products that save and improve lives. Follow her on LINKEDIN. Read her LATEST POSTS. Learn more about her HERE.

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